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Several codes of football. Images, from top to down, left to right:,, a scrum,, and.
Football is a family of that involve, to varying degrees, a with a foot to score a. Unqualified, is understood to refer to whichever form of football is the most popular in the regional context in which the word appears. Sports commonly called football in certain places include (known as soccer in some countries); (specifically or );; (either or ); and.
These different variations of football are known as football codes. There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world.
Contemporary codes of football can be traced back to during the nineteenth century. The expansion of the allowed these rules of football to spread to areas of British influence outside the directly controlled Empire. StarCraft 2.
By the end of the nineteenth century, distinct regional codes were already developing: Gaelic football, for example, deliberately incorporated the rules of local traditional football games in order to maintain their heritage. In 1888, was founded in England, becoming the first of many professional football competitions. During the twentieth century, several of the various kinds of football grew to become some of the most popular team sports in the world. Men kicking footballs The various codes of football share certain common elements and can be grouped into two main classes of football: carrying codes like American football, Canadian football, rugby union and rugby league, where the ball is moved about the field while being held in the hands or thrown, and kicking codes such as Association football and Gaelic football, where the ball is moved primarily with the feet, and where handling is strictly limited. Common rules among the sports include: • Two teams of usually between 11 and 18 players; some variations that have fewer players (five or more per team) are also popular.
• A clearly defined area in which to play the game. • or points by moving the ball to an opposing team's end of the field and either into a goal area, or over a line. • Goals or points resulting from players putting the ball between two. • The goal or line being defended by the opposing team. • Players being required to move the ball—depending on the code—by kicking, carrying, or hand-passing the ball. • Players using only their body to move the ball.
In all codes, common skills include,, evasion of tackles, catching and. In most codes, there are rules restricting the movement of players, and players scoring a goal must put the ball either under or over a between the goalposts. A painting depicting playing (i.e. Chinese football) with his prime minister (趙普) and other ministers, by the artist (1235–1305) A Chinese game called (蹴鞠), Tsu' Chu, or Zuqiu (足球) has been recognised by as the first version of the game with regular rules. It existed during the and possibly the, in the second and third centuries BC.
The Japanese version of cuju is (蹴鞠), and was developed during the. This is known to have been played within the Japanese imperial court in from about 600 AD. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground (much like ). The and are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet.
The Roman game is believed to have been adapted from a team game known as 'ἐπίσκυρος' ( ) or 'φαινίνδα' ( phaininda), which is mentioned by a Greek playwright, (388–311 BC) and later referred to by the Christian theologian (c. These games appear to have resembled.
The Roman politician (106–43 BC) describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the.
Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. There are a number of references to traditional,, or ball games, played by in many different parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer named, went ashore to play a form of football with (Eskimo) people in Greenland.
There are later accounts of an Inuit game played on ice, called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. In 1610,, a colonist at recorded a game played by Native Americans, called Pahsaheman. [ ] On the several tribes of played kicking and catching games with stuffed balls which have been generalised by historians as ( for 'game ball'). The earliest historical account is an from the 1878 book by, The Aborigines of Victoria, in which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about 1841 in, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: 'Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it.' Some historians have theorised that Marn Grook was one of the. The in New Zealand played a game called consisting of teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target.
[ ] with rubber balls by are also well-documented as existing since before this time, but these had more similarities to or, and no links have been found between such games and modern football sports. Northeastern American Indians, especially the Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although it is a ball-goal foot game, (as its modern descendant is called) is likewise not usually classed as a form of 'football.' [ ] These games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England. An illustration of so-called ' The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as ', would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse, struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes. The game was played primarily during significant religious festivals, such as Shrovetide, Christmas, or Easter, and Shrovetide games have survived into the modern era in a number of English towns (see below). The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by in about 1174–1183.